A city with a curious blend of tradition and modernity, Chennai has a rich historical legacy.
Formerly known as Madras, Chennai was a leading urban location and naval base, at the time of the British rule. Madras derives its name from Madrasapattnam, a fishing village located on the Coromandel Coast, where the British East India Company had first built a trading post in 1639 and followed it up with the construction of Fort St. George.
At that time, the weaving of Cotton fabrics was a local industry and the English invited
the weavers and native merchants to settle near the Fort. Businesses flourished on the crowded streets of the province known as George Town.
Here are a few pictures of the yore.
Prior to the British, the Portuguese had arrived in Tamil Nadu in 1522, followed by the Dutch in 1612. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Coromandel Coast was the scene of rivalries among European powers for control of the India trade. The British eventually won out and established a settlement at Fort St George to serve the British headquarters.
Madras developed rapidly into a flourishing port and the centre of a major British administrative zone. The Madras Presidency was established in the late 18th century.
Plate 49 of William Simpson’s ‘India: Ancient and Modern’
Shrines of different faiths existed in Chennai. The Parthasarathy temple at Triplicane is an 8th-century Hindu Vaishnavite temple dedicated to Lord Krishna. Lord Krishna is worshipped in the name ‘Parthasarathy‘ in this temple, which in Sanskrit, means ‘charioteer of Arjuna’.
The first church built by the British, St.Mary’s church is the oldest Protestant Church in Asia.
The Wallajah Mosque or the Big Mosque was built in 1795, in remembrance of Nawab Wallajah. Constructed with grey granite, without the use of wood and steel the mosque is one of the famous historical mosques in the city.
With the construction of the railways in the late 19th century in Tamil Nadu, the city got connected to many important states and their capitals. Royapuram Railway Station, the first railway station of south India and the oldest surviving railway station of India was declared open by Governor Lord Harris on June 28, 1856. The first section of the railway line from Royapuram to Arcot (now called Wallajah Road), was opened on 1st July 1856. The iconic pillared railway station is said to have looked like a Regency Mansion.
Captain Barnett Fort, whose drawing appeared in The Illustrated London News, described the rooms in the Royapuram station as being “very elegant and most superbly furnished with handsome punkahs & c. ~ The South’s first station, The Hindu
Rare photograph of Royapuram Railway Station by Nicholas & Co, ca 1880
You may also like to see Kolkata in the 19th century – Vintage Pictures
The Adyar Club is a gentleman’s (and woman’s) club that was founded in 1890. Originally started as a Europeans-only club, the Adyar Club started admitting Indians as members in 1960.
Post independence, Madras became the capital city of the State of Tamil Nadu and was rechristened as Chennai in 1998.
You may also like to browse through the link Mumbai in the 19th century – Vintage Pictures
Pictures shared by Mr Abdul Ghaffar (twitter handle: @)
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